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Reading grades studied

K – 2

Lindamood Phoneme Sequencing (LiPS)

Essa Rating
No. Studies
No. Students
Average Effect Size

Program Description

Lindamood Phoneme Sequencing (LiPS), or Auditory Discrimination in Depth (ADD), is a one-to-one tutoring approach with a strong emphasis on phonological awareness, decoding practice, and reading of books with phonetically controlled vocabulary. Students receive 20-minute 1-1 sessions four times a week for two years or more, combining certified teachers and aides as tutors. Teachers receive about 20 hours of training, plus 3-hour inservice biweekly meetings. Aides receive 6 hours of training and monthly followups.

Program Outcomes

In comparison to similar students who received no tutoring, those in Lindamood for 2 1/2 years gained substantially more on Woodcock Johnson measures. A one-year study found smaller but still substantial impacts. Averaging the two studies, the effect size was +0.68, qualifying Lindamood for the ESSA “Strong” category.