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Reading grades studied

3, 5

Corrective Reading — Elementary

Essa Rating
No. Studies
No. Students
Average Effect Size

Program Description

As evaluated in its only qualifying experiment (see below), Corrective Reading is a program for upper-elementary struggling readers that uses scripted, structured lessons focused on phonics, fluency, and comprehension. Explicit and systematic methods engage students in a rapid series of activities to build word-level skills.  The tasks also include exercises that build rate and fluency through oral reading of stories that have been carefully constructed to counter word-guessing habits. Note that teachers in the study received 70 hours of professional development which included three phases: intensive training, practice, and implementation.

Program Outcomes

The one qualifying evaluation of Corrective Reading took place in urban and suburban areas surrounding Pittsburgh, PA. Significant positive effects were found on Woodcock Word Attack (effect size = +0.15), and these qualified Corrective Reading for the ESSA “Strong” category. However, most other outcomes (including state reading tests) did not show positive outcomes, so the average effect size was only +0.06.

Staffing Requirements

Corrective Reading is most effective when taught in small groups. Sessions should occur 4-5 days per week for optimal achievement gains. Lesson delivery can occur within the regular classroom or outside of the regular classroom (pull-out). Instructors of the intervention may include general classroom teachers, special education teachers, intervention specialists, and paraprofessionals. Instructors may deliver instruction to multiple groups throughout the school day.

Professional Development/Training

There is a range of professional development solutions to support program implementation. Initial training can be face-to-face or via the Professional Learning Environment (PLE). The PLE provides an online course that is program specific with video of classroom instruction. Additionally, teachers can participate in a social community of other teachers using Corrective Reading. Other support includes onsite coaching, monthly webinars, and training institutes.


SRA 2Inform is a data management application for teachers to enter and track student performance. The application is web-based and requires only internet connection. The application is teacher facing only.